At a young age, Odoi joined the youth academy of Stade Leuven, where he made the move to RSC Anderlecht in 1998 alongside Dries Mertens. He later found himself in the youth setup of KRC Genk. After one season, Odoi returned to his first club, which had since been renamed Oud-Heverlee Leuven and was playing in the second division. Odoi made his debut for the first team at OHL during 2006/07. In 2009, his former coach Guido Brepoels, brought him to Sint Truiden, where Odoi got his first minutes in the Belgian top division.
After transfers to Anderlecht and Lokeren, he joined Fulham in the Championship. He won the league title twice and promoted to the Premier League. Odoi played a total of 129 matches for Fulham. In the winter of 2022, Club Brugge acquired him from England. His contract extends until 2024.